The two most common types of retinal disease are caused by degenerations (tears, occlusions, detachments and holes) or metabolic diseases (diabetes).

A branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) occurs with arteriosclerosis leading to a stiffer artery wall which may collapse a softer venous wall when they cross. This leads to hemorrhaging and subsequent damage.

A branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) usually occurs from a clot or plaque within the artery. This results in death of the retinal tissue that it normally provides oxygen to.

A collapsing vitreous can tear the retina resulting in a retinal tear or subsequent retinal detachment.

Poorly controlled diabetes can result in retinal hemorrhaging and scarring